Republic of Tajikistan Toçikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated 8 million people in 2013, and an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi). It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. Pakistan lies to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan’s 8 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian). Many Tajiks also speak Russian as their second language. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production.